Check Disk (CHKDSK) in Windows 10: Syntax, Parameters, Examples




Check Disk (CHKDSK) is a Windows 10 command tool that checks a disk for errors, fixes errors, recovers bad sectors and displays a status report.

This guide covers how to run check Disk (CHKDSK Syntax), parameters of CHKDSK and examples.

Some people refer to CHKDSK as simply Check Disk. That is okay for reference purposes only. It is important to note that the actual command in Windows 10 (and previous versions of Windows) is CHKDSK.

How to Run Check Disk in Windows 10 (CHKDSK Syntax)

Below is the syntax of the CHKDSK command:

CHKDSK [volume[[path]filename]]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/C] [/L[:size]] [/B] [/scan] [/spotfix]

The actual parameter you use in the above Syntax will depend on what you want CHKDSK to do. In the next section, I will explain what each parameter means and explain what they do.

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CHKDSK Parameters Explained

The table below lists the parameters of CHKDSK and, what each parameter means and how to use them.

1volumeSpecifies the drive letter you want to run CHKDSK on (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name.
2filena**meSpecifies the files to check for fragmentation.
3/FFixes errors on the specified disk.
4/VIf /V swicth is used on a FAT/FAT32 partition, it displays the full path and name of every file on the disk. On NTFS partition, /V Displays cleanup messages if any.
5/RLocates bad sectors and recovers readable information. If /scan not specified, /R implies /F
6/L:size*/L:size changes the log file size to the specified number of kilobytes . If size is not specified, displays current size.
7/XForces the volume to dismount first if necessary. All opened handles to the volume would then be invalid (implies /F).
8/I*/I parameter performs a less vigorous check of index entries.
9/C*Skips checking of cycles within the folder structure.
10/B*Re-evaluates bad clusters on the volume (implies /R)
11/scan*Runs an online scan on the volume
12/forceofflinefix*Must be used with “/scan”. /forceofflinefix switch makes Check Disk to bypass all online repair; all defects found are queued for offline repair (i.e. “chkdsk /spotfix”).
13/perf*Must be used with “/scan”. Uses more system resources to complete a scan as fast as possible. This may have a negative performance impact on other tasks running on the system.
14/spotfix*Runs spot fixing on the volume
15/sdcleanup*Garbage collect unneeded security descriptor
16/offlinescanandfixRuns an offline scan and fix on the volume.
17/freeorphanedchains**Frees any orphaned cluster chains
18/markclean**Marks the volume clean if no corruption was detected, even if /F was not specified.
* These parameters applies only to volumes formatted with NTFS.
** Parameters only valid for FAT/FAT32 partitions.

How to Run Check Disk in Windows 10 (CHKDSK Examples)

Here are some ways you can use CHKDSK (Check Disk) in Windows 10 to solve disk problems.

Disk Bad Sector Repair with CHKDSK

If your Windows 10 hard disk has bad sectors, you can check the disk for bad sectors with the following command:


E: is the drive letter of the partition. /R switch runs checks the disk, locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.

Below is the sample report. If there are bad sectors, CHKDSK will report it and display actions taken to fix it.

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Check Disk For Errors With CHKDSK

Check Disk (CHKDSK) can also check a disk for errors and repair them if possible. Here is the command to check a Windows 10 (applies to other Windows versions) disk for errors:


CHKDSK (Check Disk) Windows 10 Online Scan

Check Disk can perform an online scan on a disk. Here is the command.

  CHKDSK E: /Scan

Run Check Disk (CHKDSK) In Windows 10 to Scan for and Fix Errors

Check Disk in Windows 10 can scan a disk for errors and fix the errors. This is accomplished by combining /F /R and /X parameters as shown in the command below:

CHKDSK  /F /R and /X 


CHKDSK Command is a very useful Windows 10 command line tool for fixing common disk errors. I hope that with this guide you have been able to use Check Disk to fix some of your hard disk problems.

If you have any question or comment, use the “Leave a Reply” form at the end of the guide. Alternatively, you could share your experience using Check Disk (CHKDSK) in Windows 10 or any other version of Windows.

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